The Qur'an or Koran Karim is the greatest literary work in classical Arabic and for all Muslims stands as the verbatim word of God transmitted to the prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him) by the Arch angel Jibril (Gabriel). When reading the Quran, you immediately begin to feel that the text you are reading is speaking to you directly. While translating the Qur’an is seen as blasphemy, translations of the meaning are not.
The Qur'an contains 114 chapters called surahs. The Quran was revealed over 23yrs as society needed them. It is the first revelation of its kind to be revealed in such a way. In the past, revelation would be revealed in one go but the Qur’an is such a weighty book that it would have overburdened the prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him) to reveal it to him in one go so it was sent down a few verses at a time in response to questions being asked by society. “If We had sent this Quran down to a mountain, you [Prophet] would have seen it humbled and split apart in its awe of God: We offer people such illustrations so that they may reflect.” (Quran 59:21). If that would happen to a mountain, you can just imagine its weight.
During his lifetime, Muhammad would have individual verses revealed to him (Peace and blessings upon him). He, and others, would memorize the verses and, under the guidance of Jibril, Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him), organized these verses into the existing surahs.
After the death of Muhammad, the text of the Qur'an was written down in the caliphate of Abu Bakr. For more than a decade after the death of Muhammad, the Qur'an remained primarily an oral text in the memories of the faithful.
Muslims believe the Quran to be the book of divine guidance revealed from God to Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him) through the angel Jibril (Gabriel) over a period of 23 years and view the Quran as God's final revelation to humanity.
In Islamic and Quranic contexts, revelation means the act of God addressing a person, conveying a message for mankind. Tanzil is the process by which revelation is transmitted to the heart of a messenger of God which means ‘to send down’ or nuzūl (to come down).
The Qur'an is the main miracle of the prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him), as proof of his prophethood, and as the culmination of a series of divine messages. These started with the messages revealed to Adam (Peace be upon him), the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah) of Moses, the Zabur (Tehillim or Book of Psalms) of David, and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus (Peace be upon them all).
The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in Jewish and Christian scriptures, summarizing some, dwelling at length on others, and, in some cases, presenting alternative accounts and interpretations of events.
Chapter titles of the Koran Karim are derived from a name or quality discussed in the text, or from the first letters or words of the sura. The prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings upon him), on God's command, gave the suras their names.